1. Climate change, energy and emissions

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1. Climate change, energy and emissions

Lahti and Hollola aim for energy savings

At the premises of City of Lahti Facility Centre, specific heat consumption was 40.0 kWh/m3 and specific electricity consumption 15.9 kWh/3. The respective figures for Hollola were 41 kWh/m3 and 21 kWh/m3. Specific electric consumption decreased slightly in both municipalities. The figures for Lahti do not include temporary portable buildings with separate electricity connections, but buildings that were under renovation or otherwise underused in 2018 are included. Lahti continues its participation in the Energy Efficiency Agreement for Municipalities with the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy, and Hollola is considering joining the agreement to qualify for energy grants. Both municipalities participate in the Canemure EU project. The Päijät-Häme subproject is developing a climate roadmap and climate actions for the region.

Municipal-level electricity consumption decreased year-on-year in Lahti and Hollola alike.

From coal to renewable energy

The energy-related goals of Lahti Energy reached an important milestone in December 2018: a coal ship sailing into the Port of Hamina carried the last load of coal. The recent heating season was the last one during which coal was used for heating in the Lahti region. Construction of the Kymijärvi III biothermal power plant has progressed according to plan. In the next heating season (2019–2020), it can use mainly renewable biofuel for power production. In order to ensure the availability of renewable fuel, Lahti Energy has acquired a bioterminal in Kouvola. The design of the Kymijärvi III power plant takes eco-friendliness and energy-efficiency into account in many ways. Lahti Energy has particularly invested in cutting emissions into the air and water and reducing the noise impact.

Proportion of wind power doubled In addition to reducing emissions from power generation, Lahti Energy’s strategy aims for a reduction of emissions from its vehicles. At year-end 2018, Lahti Energy had ten electric cars and two cars running on gas. However, the majority of Lahti Energy’s cars are diesel-operated. In December, Lahti Energy was among the first in Lahti to fill cars up with Neste My biodiesel, manufactured 100% from waste and food residues from industrial processes. Starting in January 2019, Lahti Energy’s personnel are instructed to use biodiesel for their diesel-operated shared cars and company cars whenever possible. Use of biodiesel significantly reduces greenhouse gas, particle and nitrogen oxide emissions.

Efficient recovery and reuse of ashes continued in 2018. A specific interim storage area was established at the Miekka ash landfill site, through which ashes have been forwarded to be used as fertiliser and for excavation work. Use of ash from old piles for road construction was tested.

Lahti Energy has considerably increased the proportion of wind power in its acquisition of energy through cooperative energy producers The amount of wind power electricity doubled from 2017. Lahti Energy continues to invest in profitable renewable power production and energy-efficiency projects.

New energy management and efficiency services

In 2018, Lahti Energy particularly invested in the development of a new software-based energy management solution and energy-efficiency expert services. In summer 2018, Lahti Energy and Pori Energia acquired a majority holding in e-Protech Oy, a company providing energy efficiency services for properties. Also in 2018, the first Kaukolämpö 2.0 district heating agreements were signed, with Lahti Energy providing housing complexes with heating as a service. The product also includes possible energy efficiency investments in the production method and use of energy. At first, the service will only be available to housing complexes with Lahti Energy as their comprehensive energy service partner.

Additionally, Lahti Energy has developed other services for e-cars, including a service providing properties with charging infrastructure. Lahti Energy provides six public charging points for electric cars in Lahti, located in front of Lahti Energy’s office on Kauppakatu, in the Sibelius Hall car park, and at the Sports Centre.

Renewable fuels accounted for 35.69 per cent and fossil fuels for 64.31 per cent of district heat production for the energy network. CO2-free electricity accounted for 64.47 per cent of electricity sales (17.03 per cent renewable and 47.44 per cent nuclear power). Carbon dioxide emissions from industry and power production increased from the previous year. However, emissions will decrease significantly in the future, as the Kymijärvi 1 coal power plant saw its last full year of operation in 2018.

 

Electricity consumption (kWh per resident per year)

200020072011201220132014201520162017
Lahti862008358905187128780849791429138
Hollola081787947797677777446733182807861
Nastola1312712115116731194311551

 

 

Specific electricity consumption in municipal premises (kWh per cibic meter)

200120142015201620172018
Lahti18,216,915,716,916,315,9
Hollola24,1523,622,6622,6521

 

Lahti and Nastola were consolidated 2016, as were Hollola and Hämeenkoski

 

Heat consumption in municipal premises (kWh per cubic meter)

200120142015201620172018
Lahti52,140,739,140,640,340,0
Hollola31,2231,4740,340,141

 

Lahti and Nastola were consolidated 2016, as were Hollola and Hämeenkoski

 

Carbon dioxide emissions from power plants and industries, Lahti (tonnes)

199720142015201620172018
Lahti691300566232495220520287452749574714

 

Circular economy

The circular economy in the Päijät-Häme region and the Kujala company ecosystem are excellent examples internationally. In 2018, the search started for the location of a new recycling area in Orimattila or Hollola through the EIA and regional plan processes.

Landfill gases are recovered from the closed landfill. All recovered gas was used as energy in 2018. Compared with the previous year, days where odour was detected were observed slightly more frequently in the vicinity of the Kujala waste management plant, in the daily monitoring to which residents may also contribute. Landfill seepage water was led to the wastewater treatment plant, with approximately two cubic metres of overflow into the terrain. In other respects, the load was in permit regulations and normal.

Similar to previous years, most of the waste received by Päijät-Häme Waste Management Ltd (PHJ) was utilised as material or energy. Separately collected energy waste and mixed waste were treated in LATE sorting facility and plastics and metals were separated. SRF fuel was made in MURRE crushing facility and sent to Lahti Energy Kymijärvi II gasification plant and Stora Enso co-incineration plant. Rest of the waste was sent to other waste incineration plants.

Biowaste was processed at LABIO Ltd’s digestion and composting plant, where it was converted into biogas and compost. Market conditions for plastic were poor in 2018, which prevented the achievement of the planned material recycling target. SRF-, wood- and logging residue-based recycled fuels were sent to be burned as planned. In particular, demand for wood-based fuels was very high.

In 2018, the utilisation rate of municipal waste received by PHJ amounted to 97%. Of this waste, 30 per cent (161 kg/resident) was utilised for material and 67 per cent (355 kg/resident) for energy production, while 3 per cent (17 kg/resident) of the waste ended up in landfill. The strategic goal of PHJ is to increase the recycling rate of municipal waste in its area to 50 per cent. This can be achieved through extensive at-source sorting of waste as well as correct processing methods and their efficient use. Increased recycling will reduce the use of waste for energy. In addition, PHJ aims to improve the use of renewable energy sources in its operations. In autumn 2017, two solar power plants were built on the roofs of the Waste Centre. In 2018, they generated 71 MWh of electric power. This saved 17,700 kg in carbon dioxide emissions. Lighting at the Waste Centre was renovated in spring 2018. Now the area is equipped with LED lighting and smart lighting control, which further improves the energy efficiency of the Waste Centre.

The solar power project continued in 2018 in co-operation with Lahti Energy. The objective is to enable the building of two larger-scale solar power plants on top of the closed landfill at Kujala Waste Centre. PHJ has signed the Society’s Commitment to Sustainable Development and has committed itself to using 100 per cent renewable energy in all of its facilities and operations. In addition, PHJ aims for 50 per cent energy self-sufficiency by 2030.

Lahti Aqua provides water services for approximately 140,000 people and carries out environmentally important water treatment. Residents of Lahti use approximately 120 litres of water per person per day. The wastewater treatment plants remove 98 per cent of the organic matter and phosphorus and over 70 per cent of the nitrogen contained in water. In 2018, wastewater produced by Lahti, Hollola and Nastola amounted to 12.3 million cubic metres. Sand and solids are removed from wastewater mechanically, and organic matter and nitrogen biologically and phosphorus chemically. Wastewater is hygienised with UV light before discharging it into the Porvoonjoki river. Hygienisation eliminates nearly 100 per cent of bacteria in the water. Follow-up studies show that bacterial load of faecal origin has decreased considerably in the Porvoonjoki river after the commencement of hygienisation.

Organic matter is decomposed mostly into biogas by the digesters of the Kariniemi and Ali-Juhakkala treatment plants. Some of the biogas is used for heating the treatment plants and the rest goes into the district heating network. After this, the sludge goes into the composting plant of Labio Oy to become soil conditioner.

 

Amount of mixed (previous landfill) waste produced by Lahti municipal departments (tonnes)

2001200220112012201320142015201620172018
Lahti13041235106910761160929806828725668

 

 

Amount of municipal waste to be disposed by landfilling in PHJ area (kg per capita)

199920112012201320142015201620172018
Päijät-Häme Waste Management area2344840212035152617

 

 

Reuse rate of municipal waste received by PHJ, incl.energy use (%)

20012008200920142015201620172018
PHJ area5154899592969597

 

Recycling rate of municipal waste received by PHJ (reuse as materials), %

20142015201620172018
PHJ area3131293230

 

 

Loading of wastewater from Lahti and Hollola on the River Porvoonjoki (tonnes)

20112012201320142015201620172018
Phosphorus2.83.33.32.61.81.92.31,9
Nitrogen (NH₄)2629.331.414.4164.71117
BHK₇5089.574.573524360

 

Calculation of the loading takes into account the fact that, since 2016, treated wastewater
from Kariniemi and Ali-Juhakkala are led into the Nikula detention basin,
hygienised and then led into the Porvoonjoki river. Before this, the treatment
plants had separate discharge points.

Loading of wastewater from Nastola (tonnes)

20112012201320142015201620172018
Phosphorus0,20,20,20,190,20,30,40,22
Nitrogen (NH₄)0,30,50,10,20,60,71,10,7
BHK₇3,34,43,12,822,22,22,5

 

 

 

 

 

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