7. Noise

7A. Present Situation

Table 1: Benchmarking Data - Noise

 Lahti is small and green; the city centre is densely built (imperviousness approx. 65%). The urban structure is largely inherited from the 1950s-1970s. Major transport routes cut through the city centre (Fig. A1). A motorway (E75) bypasses the eastern part of Lahti. Smaller roads and railway routes intersect the city.

The road network in the City of Lahti and in the city centre.

The E75 motorway affects the eastern part of Lahti. Traffic volume in city centre is high: about 20 000 – 38 000 cars on Main Road 12 (red square), 24 000 – 31 000 cars on Hollolankatu (left blue line) and 4 000 – 20 000 cars in the centre. The railway station is well used.

Traffic is the most significant noise source (Fig. A3). 19% of the population is exposed to total noise values of Lden (day, evening and night noise level) above 55 dB(A) due to road traffic and 9% due to railway traffic (Table A2). Only significant industrial noise pollution originates from the Kymijärvi power plant (IPPC Directive location). According to the noise mapping in 2017, ~50 residents were exposed to Lden levels above 55 dB (A) due to industry (Table A2). Although the city centre is noisy, many building blocks have quiet courtyards. Excluding buildings that are partially located in more silent areas reduces the figures by approximately 1/3 but, the true figures are somewhere in the middle.

 

Table A2. The number of residents exposed to noise pollution (2017). Rounding of the numbers follow the rules of the directive.

Table A2. The number of residents exposed to noise pollution (2017). Rounding of the numbers follow the rules of the directive.

Noise Mapping before 2012 and during 2017

The city has comparable noise mapping data since 2012. In 2007, the E75 motorway and Main Road 12 were mapped. In 2004, the railway route noise levels were measured. In 2009, noise levels were measured for railway routes and city roads with over 5 000 cars/day (located outside the centre). The latter was updated in 2010. About 1/4 of residents were exposed to noise levels above 55 dB during the daytime, of which half in the city centre. Nearly 14 km of noise barriers should be built, costing approximately 20M€. Lahti is designing new actions based on 2017 mapping data.

Figure A3. Traffic noise values of Lden and Ln (2017).

Figure A3. Traffic noise values of Lden and Ln (2017).

Quiet Areas

Quiet areas were mapped in 2010 and updated in 2016 (Fig. A5). Lahti has many quiet areas with high recreational value. Although the largest areas are located further from the city centre, smaller high-quality areas are easily accessible from the city centre. Since Lahti has abundant quiet areas, sites smaller than 2 ha were excluded from the mapping. A quiet area was defined as an area with noise levels lower than 50 dB during the day or less than 45 dB during the night. 56 areas fulfilled the criteria. Noise levels in these areas are below 45 dB(A) or even < 40 dB(A). Quiet areas were divided into three: 1) quiet areas of high recreational or ecological value, 2) other quiet areas and 3) special areas. Lahti monitors the coverage of quiet areas every four years in the master planning process.

Continuous forests on the Salpausselkä ridge act as an important recreational and quiet area (Fig. A4).

Forests near the centre provide quiet areas for citizens.

Figure A4. Forests near the centre provide quiet areas for citizens.

n 2015, 41.4% of the population lived within 300 m of quiet areas, but in reality the figure is much higher. Besides quiet areas smaller than 2 ha, and quiet areas visible on the map, lakes serve as quiet areas (Fig. A5). During the summer, quiet locations on lakes are accessible by boat. During the winter, they are accessible by anyone.

Reducing Noise Pollution and Preserving Quiet Areas

A new Noise Abatement Action Plan will be adopted in Oct 2018. Measures for highways and railways are covered in the Finnish Transport Agency Noise Abatement Action Plan. Noise issues, such as reduction of car traffic, are considered in Lahti’s Master Plan.

Quiet areas of Lahti city urban area.

Figure A5. Quiet areas of Lahti city urban area.

7B. Past Performance

Communication with Citizens

The noise mapping (2017) results and the Noise Abatement Plan are presented to residents at public events. Quiet area and detailed noise maps, along with the Noise Abatement Plan and noise reports are available on our website [13].

Lahti has been arranging an Environmental Week for 22 years. In 2003, the whole week was devoted to noise issues, and included seminars and walking trips. During the 2016 Environmental Week, a public event was organized where residents were able to learn about quiet areas and noise levels.

Preserving Quiet Areas

The city is striving to, at least, exclude first class quiet areas from construction.

Constructing in Noisy Areas

Noise issues are carefully considered before constructing. If there is a possibility of high noise levels, noise must be thoroughly mapped. Solutions to achieve noise levels below 55 dB are decided site-specifically, including measures such as soundproof windows, noise walls, and sound berms, or arranging buildings in a way that they function as noise walls. If the property developer implements appropriate measures, the developer may receive benefits, such as a permit to construct more buildings on the plot. To consolidate land use and rehabilitate old industrial areas, we are developing the brownfields, adjacent to the main railway route, as mixed-use/residential areas. These areas are subject to higher noise levels. Hence, noise must be carefully considered.

Noise levels have been modelled for the Hennala area. Due to noise pollution, buildings should be arranged in an L or U shape, to provide quiet areas. High-rise apartment buildings are recommended to protect areas further from the railway. It is advised that buildings closest to the railway be used for businesses. The City of Lahti arranged a competition to find the best planning solution for Hennala. The detailed plan was enforced in January 2017.

Reducing Car Traffic

To lessen noise pollution, emphasis is on reducing road traffic, i.e. the source of the noise. The Noise Abatement Action Plan measures include:

Developing the city centre towards a pedestrian zone:
• Car-free zones in the city centre (Lanunaukio in 2007). (Fig B1).
• 2012 Development Plan for Walking and Cycling 2025 [8].
• In 2013-2015, a parking garage for 600 cars was built underneath Lahti’s market square and a number of parking spaces were removed from the streets. Reducing street parking increases the quality of urban space for pedestrians and enables development of the city centre towards a pedestrian zone (Fig. B2).
• Transformation of Aleksanterinkatu Street to a primarily pedestrian area, completed in November 2016 (cost 3.1 M€).
• Pedestrian paths are widened by taking space from cars.
• Installation of additional bicycle racks, adding space for up to 1 100 bicycles.
• Speed limits are reduced to 30 and 40 km/h on some streets.

Lanunaukio is one of the car-free zones in the city centre.

Figure B1. Lanunaukio is one of the car-free zones in the city centre.

Lahti’s city centre, around the market square, is undergoing a transformation.

Figure B2. Lahti’s city centre, around the market square, is undergoing a transformation.

Promoting quiet transport modes and public transportation (Fig. B3-4):
• A bicycle friendly city: 532 km of combined pedestrian and cycling paths (2016).
• In 2014, public transportation was reformed. New routes were added (40% increase in kilometres) and service frequency was increased.
• In 2015, 82.8% of residents lived in the pedestrian/public transportation zone (maximum frequency for public transport: every 30 minutes; maximum distance to a bus stop: 250 m).
• Lahti’s Master Plan concentrates on consolidating land use and ensuring a population density of at least 15 inhab./ha to enable good public transportation.
• A new Travel Centre was built in 2015 [11] that combines the railway and buses for a smooth transition between the different modes, along with parking garages for bicycles and cars (investment 18 M€).
• The City of Lahti owns 3 electric bicycles and 8 electric cars.
• There are about ten public electric car charging outlets, more are planned.
• A test-ride of electric bicycles was arranged by the city, in 2016, for local companies’ workers and for residents (Fig. B3).
• Reducing speed limits close to sensitive areas (schools, residential areas) to decrease noise and increase safety.

We are promoting electric bicycles. E-bicycles are a viable option instead of traditional bicycles, due to Lahti’s hilly landscape.

Figure B3. We are promoting electric bicycles. E-bicycles are a viable option instead of traditional bicycles, due to Lahti’s hilly landscape.

The popularity of different modes of transport has varied, in the Lahti area, over the decades.

* These are not comparable to 2010 and 2016 numbers due to differences in the research methods and period. Figure B4. The popularity of different modes of transport has varied, in the Lahti area, over the decades.

Noise Barriers

Besides sound berms, Lahti has approximately 9.9 km of noise walls. These are mostly located by the E75 motorway and Main Road 12. Our Noise Abatement Action Plan includes constructing new noise barriers. New noise barriers are built to protect the most sensitive areas (e.g. kindergartens, schools, hospitals, residential areas) and the most noisy areas, as well as locations benefitting the largest number of residents.

• In 2016, construction of a new noise wall was completed on Tapparakatu Street (cost: 140 000 €), protecting a kindergarten and detached housing area (Fig. B5).
• Other planned noise walls (3 locations) will be constructed in Lahti during 2017-2018; detailed planning is completed or under way (see 6C).

The new noise wall in Tapparankatu protects the kindergarten and residential area.

Figure B5. The new noise wall in Tapparankatu protects the kindergarten and residential area.

2 in 1: Buildings as Noise Barriers

Constructing new buildings in locations with noise problems can reach two goals at once: 1) consolidating land use and 2) lessening noise levels by using the new buildings as barriers. Buildings are well insulated in Finland, so noise levels inside the buildings are very low. Apartment buildings are long and high, and function as a noise barrier protecting the areas behind them. For example, three long apartment buildings have been planned for Tapparakatu Street, with the first one already under construction. These buildings will reduce noise levels in the residential area.

7C. Future Plans

Stakeholder Involvement on Noise Mapping

The new noise mapping was completed in 2017. The upcoming Noise Abatement Action Plan (2018-2019) will include measures to reduce the number of residents subjected to high noise values. For example, additional noise barriers will be built by the railway.

A new evaluation on health effects of traffic noise (Case Lahti) was performed by Ramboll Ltd (consultant) in cooperation with the National Institute for Health and Welfare. During Environmental Week of Lahti 2017, preliminary noise mapping results were presented to citizens.

Noise Abatement Action Plan 2018

The action plan aims to lessen noise pollution and to especially protect residents from loud noise (> 65 dB), highly populated areas, schools and kindergartens, and quiet areas.

Actions to reduce noise pollution:
• Limiting car traffic (especially in the city centre).
• Lowering speed limits (to 30 and 40 km/h).
• Directing lorry transports away from residential areas.
• Land use solutions promoting public transportation, cycling and walking.
• Noise level criteria for public procurement: public transportation and other transportation.
• Noise mapping, together with planning processes.
• Locating excess soil, already in the planning processes, to reduce the need for noise barriers.
• Building Control pays attention to the realization of noise abatement measures on private properties (noise proof windows, glazed balconies, location of other buildings, such as garages, so that these lessen noise levels on the property, noise walls or sound berms).
• Using silent asphalt and renewing it.
• Constructing noise walls and sound berms.

A Noise Abatement Group monitors the implementation yearly. The plan is also updated yearly, based on the city’s construction programme and budget for the next year. [4]

New Noise Barriers

Over the next two years, noise barriers will be constructed/improved on Ahtialantie and Hirsimetsäntie roads (estimated cost 2.4 M). Sound berms are built in Nastola to protect residents from railway noise. All noise barriers will achieve noise levels below 55 dB. About 517 residents and 300 children/students will be protected when these barriers are built.

After constructing the abovementioned noise barriers, new ones are planned for other parts of Kärpäsenkatu Street (close to Kiekkostenkuja Road and Kaivotontinkatu Street costing 157 000 € (Fig. C1), close to Harjunalustankatu Street for 179 000 €, and close to Okeroistentie Road for 147 000 €), Ahtialantie Road (close to Purorinteenkatu Street for 190 000 €) and Lahdenkatu - Mukkulankatu (Kivimaa School; 700 000 €). Noise barriers are also planned for the main railway route.

Long noise walls will be constructed along Kärpäsenkatu Street.

Figure C1. Long noise walls will be constructed along Kärpäsenkatu Street.

In new detached housing areas, space will be reserved for noise barriers, where excess construction soil can be used. The Noise Abatement Group has selected 10 preliminary sites where noise reduction will be managed through excess soil use, by 2021.

Quieter City Centre

Besides Aleksanterinkatu Street, other streets will also undergo a change (Figs. C2, C3). Vapaudenkatu Street (adjacent to the market square “Tori” and parallel to Aleksanterinkatu) is being primarily developed for public transportation. Vapaudenkatu’s two-way high quality cycling path will be increased westward. Rautatiekatu Street (not highlighted on the map) will be further developed as a pedestrian zone. Most car traffic will be directed to a city centre outer “circle”, lessening traffic inside the circle. This enables additional cycling paths to be constructed (e.g. along Vesijärvikatu Street).

The main road network of Lahti city centre, by 2020.

Figure C2. The main road network of Lahti city centre, by 2020.

Noise Reduction in New Developments

The currently enforced detailed plan for a new residential area between the railway and Main Road 12 emphasizes noise control. The plan prevents traffic noise from reaching the south and railway noise the north. Noise protected blocks are placed inside the area.

Lessening Noisy Transportation

Lahti is committed to improving the already very good cycling network (Fig. C3). Campaigns will be organized to advertise cycling. We are currently benchmarking smart bike-sharing concepts and intend to create a sustainable test platform for these new service concepts. A long term goal is to to replace the current bus fleet with electric buses.

Constructing a bypass road (2018) will allow directing the lorry transport away from the centre. The new road will be partially located in tunnels or below ground level. Noise barriers will be constructed along the rest of the highway in Lahti. Directing the Main Road 12 away from the centre enables Mannerheiminkatu Road (currently Main Road 12) to be developed into a normal city street (e.g. lower speed).

Map
 

Figure C3. The main cycling network. The new, planned cycling paths are shown with a dotted line.  Click to enlarge map.

Active Marketing of Recreational Possibilities of Surrounding Nature

Lahti has a high-quality nature environment with numerous recreational possibilities for enjoying peaceful, quiet time (Fig. C4).

Lakes and forests, swamps and meadows – Lahti is rich in peaceful nature areas.

Figure C4. Lakes and forests, swamps and meadows – Lahti is rich in peaceful nature areas.

 

 

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